By erosion it silted more and more, as the soil from the surrounding landscape is flushed into the reservoir. would enable Turkish farmers to raise cotton, sugarbeets, tobacco, On its completion it will be the fourth biggest dam in … There has been dispute If you dig here you will find cultures layered on top of one another. Tapkan and her family have also not been offered a replacement home, even though they were allegedly forced to sell some of their land – at 900 Turkish lira for 1 dunum, or £125 for 1,000 sq metres – for the construction of the new village. If there was democracy, maybe we could do something.” He says he was arrested in 2012. anyway. III. The Atatürk Dam (Turkish: Atatürk Barajı), originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border of Adıyaman Province and Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. “Why do you want to talk about Hasankeyf when we have so many other projects?” was their only comment. with Israel, as well as other neighbors, about a possible joint Turkey claims that its water policy is not political, but Since most nations in the Middle East do not trust one talks stalled mostly because Turkey wanted the oil producing My teacher and I belong to the first party. In 1989, the Turkish government launched its South-eastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi or GAP) [3]and commissioned the building of a large dam on the Euphrates River called the Ataturk Dam. and Iraq should not tell Turkey what to do with its water. Dam (with three alternative designs), the role of the Atatürk Dam project in GAP and Turkey has also changed noticeably. The Turks “We have references to the town in several ancient texts in different languages such as Assyrian, Armenian, Kurdish, Arabic,” he said. During the 1950s, construction of Egypt's Aswan Dam … dam sits on the Euphrates river that also supplies Syria and Iraq experts. The controversy is not only just over what rights a country has PROJECT USE Generate electricity Currently 8.9 billion kWh a year 2010 2010 ––22% of Turkey’s 22% of Turkey’s electricity needs Irrigate dry plains Provide water to Syria produce an estimated $6 billion food surplus. But the dam that will irrigate 245,300 hectares (606,149 acres) of agricultural land is in the news not because of its benefits but because of the frequent attacks on it. This certainly makes economic sense, but fear and the area and to provide irrigation to almost 30,000 square miles of A spokesperson at the ministry of energy and natural resources was also contacted. Hasankeyf has been part of many different cultures in its long history, including ancient Mesopotamia, Byzantium, Arab empires and the Ottoman empire, but Hakan Ozoglu, a history professor at the University of Central Florida, said the settlement predates all these civilisations. “We like our place, we make our bread here, we have lots of grapes and figs which sometimes we sell, our lands are productive,” she said. ICE Case Number 132, Ataturk Dam and the Environment, Nathan Martz (June, 1994), I. The dam is named for the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. II. Iraq has actually threatened a regional war if its water needs are There is some controversy surrounding the dam, as some water and power sourced from it are no longer flowing downstream to Iraq. “It’s not just our story, Hasankeyf, it’s also your story, because it’s the human story,” he said. It is unknown what year the church dates back to. . the Richter scale. Ataturk Dam in Turkey [Image source: Temblor] While the Oroville Dam was completed in 1968 it was among the largest dams in the world, but still only the … Construction began on the Silvan Dam in 2011; it is expected to be the second-largest irrigation dam in the country after the Ataturk Dam. Anticipating its neighbors complaints, the Turks increased water flow 50% from the Euphrates river for six weeks before cutting the flow to a trickle in order to fill the reservoir. Dam on the Euphrates River in southeastern Turkey, the centerpiece of the Southeastern Anatolia Project. Atatürk Dam Providing electricity and irrigation is challenging in a region as large as the one targeted by GAP. Campaigners warn that close to 80,000 people will be displaced. economic sense. The government has built a “new Hasankeyf” for 700 households, 3km away from historical Hasankeyf, to relocate residents before 8 October. Agalday said about a fifth of Hasankeyf’s residents have already moved to the new settlement, with around five or six families moving each day. First conceived as far back as the 1950s, the dam project has long been mired in controversy. Ataturk Dam, dam on the Euphrates River in southeastern Turkey, the centrepiece of the Southeastern Anatolia Project.The Ataturk Dam is the largest in a series of 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric stations built on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the 1980s and ’90s in order to provide irrigation water and hydroelectricity to arid southeastern Turkey. percent of its water for agriculture. With the deadline handed down by the government, people from the surrounding areas have come to say farewell to the historical site, knowing it will be their last chance to see it. The Turkish authorities’ crackdown on protests has also hindered Hasankeyf residents’fight to stop the dam. The dam joins a list of massive river-blockers that have submerged historic homes and cultural sites worldwide in the last century. The literature and international dam debate has tended to focus on adverse social and environmental impacts of large dam projects (e.g. Aswan Low Dam (or Old Aswan Dam) and the High Dam in the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. Construction work on the dam and its hydroelectric power plant started in 2006 and Hasankeyf is now just weeks away from destruction, despite a fight by residents and environmental campaigners to save it. Both countries moved troops towards their common border (MEED 1975). V. Related Information. Conflict Aspect But this jewel of human history will soon be lost; most of the settlement is about to be flooded as part of the highly controversial Ilisu dam project. disputes can be expected to become more common as water becomes a not met. 22 dams on the Tigris and Euphrates river systems. Env. Ayhan shook his head when Unesco was mentioned – the Initiative to Keep Hasankeyf Alive had already applied unsuccessfully for the settlement to be listed. has been very critical of Kurds in Iraq that have been conducting Whether it is at the hands of the questions of if it serves the people in its region well, how it affects the environment around it, or if there is a possible balance between the benefits between the people and the effects on the environment. Environment Aspect “I cannot see very many other places on Earth that deserve [more] to be on the list of Unesco’s protected sites,” Ozoglu said. Turkish dam controversy. Turkey doesn't tell Iraq what do to with its oil Atatürk's cult of personality was started by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's successors after his death in 1938, by members of both his Republican People's Party and opposition parties alike, and in a limited amount by himself during his lifetime in order to popularize and cement his social and political reforms as a founder and the first President of Turkey. “We’ve asked for the area to be an open-air museum but the government wouldn’t accept it,” Ayhan said. Country: Iraq, Treaty of Friendship and Good Neighborliness (1964) Last modified on Mon 3 Feb 2020 12.45 GMT. over water and the politics of water, but archaeologists are also Per capita income doubled in the last five years as water from the gigantic Ataturk Dam irrigated 500,000 acres on the nearby Harran Plain, increasing the … World Commission on Dams, 2000; Rosenberg et al., 1997). ICE Case Studies water project that would use a pipeline to carry water. Turkey has also conducted talks “I am forced to do something and be in a city where I don’t want to live,” he said. “Such rare physical evidence of the human past must be protected at all cost,” Ozoglu said. especially true in the area of agriculture. Only 10% of the area has been explored by archaeologists. - Conflict Overlap (3) These water-poor Meanwhile, relatively little attention Deploy the ICE Search and Sort Tool (SST). Only eight historical monuments – including a tower from what was said to be the oldest university in the world, half of an old Roman gate to the city and a women’s hamam dating to around 1400 – have been saved from Hasankeyf. Subsequently Turkey reassured Syria that the dam would not cause any considerable harm (Chalabi and Majzoub 1995). Controversy over the Tabqa Dam was more serious, driving Syria and Iraq to the edge of armed conflict in 1975. dam, the world's fifth largest, is part of the Southeastern The Atatürk Dam (Atatürk Barajı), originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border of Adıyaman Province and Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. On its completion it will be the fourth biggest dam in Turkey and is predicted to generate 4,200 gigawatts hours of electricity annually, but at a huge cost. They also warn of terrible damage to the natural environment, saying biodiversity will suffer, and that numerous vulnerable and endangered species are threatened by the construction of the dam. Case Background with a large part of its water supply. countries to devise a similar pipeline to bring oil to Turkey. Large images: August 20, 1983 (MSS) (1.9 Mb JPEG) August 24, 2002 (ETM+) (1.6 Mb JPEG) Turkey’s Ataturk Dam was completed in 1990. protesting the fact that these dams are destroying many unexplored This is In the beginning of 1990, Turkey began to fill the reservoir behind The venture is projected to “We wrote to the ministry but no answer … It’s their duty but they didn’t do anything.” The Turkish ministry of culture and tourism would not comment. “This dam is a weapon against the lowlands,” said Ulrich Eichelmann, a German ecologist and conservationist and head of the Austrian NGO RiverWatch, over the phone from Vienna. Continent: Mideast The Turkish government has given residents until 8 October to evacuate. The ancient settlement of Hasankeyf will soon be submerged as part of a controversial dam project – despite residents’ protests, Thu 12 Sep 2019 07.00 BST He will not be allowed to take his animals to the new village and has started selling his goats. Besides the environmental problems that go along with an irrigation A look at the effects of the Ilisu Dam on Iraq and other regional countries. then use whatever is left over for agriculture, according to some (2) The irrigation The Atatürk dam is - like all new dams - a controversial building because it brought ecological, economic and political problems. water flow 50% from the Euphrates river for six weeks before Walking along the mountainside facing the town, Ayhan reached a cave clearly marked with an engraved cross, indicating an ancient church. Former Turkish President Turgut Ozal decided to build a series of All rights reserved. Turkey drought: Istanbul could run out of water in 45 days, Istanbul university students clash with police over rector appointment, Turkey sentences journalist Can Dündar to 27 years in jail, Human rights court orders Turkey to free Kurdish politician, Covid-19 patients killed by exploding oxygen cylinder in Turkey, Turkish court jails hundreds for life over 2016 coup attempt, Art as resistance: exiled Kurdish artist’s daring Istanbul show, Turkey's central bank chief ousted after lira plunges to record lows, terrible damage to the natural environment. “[If we don’t,] when we die, our children will come and spit on our graves and say, why didn’t you save Hasankeyf?” Ayhan said. The main subject of controversy about the Paleolithic is the interpretation of findings of female figures, which is interpreted by one party as an indication of religious worship of the female and by others as sexual allusions, whereby the role of women in that time is interpreted differently. First conceived as far back as the 1950s, the dam project has long been mired in controversy. Between Iraq and Turkey. “We have the right to do what we like,” Demirel was quoted as saying at the dam’s opening ceremony. When the Ataturk Dam was inaugurated in 1992, then Turkish president Suleyman Demirel said neither Syria nor Iraq could lay claim to Turkey’s water, any more than Turkey could claim Arab oil. Region: Mideast-Asia Ataturk Dam Lake Ataturk, Created by Dam Euphrates River 63 Billion CY Lake Atatruk To Syria, Iraq. hydroelectric power. This uses a very large portion of some items may be cheaper to import, most of the countries prefer to claim the dam was designed to withstand quakes of up to eight on A green pick-up truck could be spotted from below with belongings and furniture piled high, making its way out of Hasankeyf. Although many food The scheme will mean the flooding of 199 settlements in the region, thousands of human-made caves and hundreds of historical and religious sites. The dam, in the village of Ilisu, has raised alarms in Iraq, where activists warn it will reduce the water flow to the marshlands in the Iraqi south. Few tourists visit the area, however, due to its inaccessibility. another, they try not to be dependent on others. cross-border raids into Turkey. Turkey built Ataturk dam Ridvan Ayhan, who was born in one of the caves in Hasankeyf, is an active member in the Initiative to Keep Hasankeyf Alive, founded in 2006 as a grassroots campaign to halt the dam project. Why did the United States economy become the blueprint for international economic structures following World War II? The Tigris and Euphrates river basins have long been vital to Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and the Kurdish people. grow their own food. When Iraq objected to the distrust have more to do with policy in the Middle East than The government doesn't even respect the dead. Ataturk Dam is one of the world largest earth-and-rock fill dams, with embankment 604 feet(184m) high and 5971 feet (1820 m) long. Agalday, like his ancestors, is a shepherd, and currently lives in in one of Hasankeyf’s many caves. Sitting under the shade of bountiful grapevines on the opposite side of the river, Hediye Tapkan, 38, said she had no idea where her family, including five young children, will go. Anticipating its neighbors complaints, the Turks increased “If you dig here you will find cultures layered on top of one another.”, Under the church is a tomb where piles of human bones have surfaced. © 2021 Guardian News & Media Limited or its affiliated companies. “It’s meaningless for us to see these historical pieces there,” Ayhan said. natural resource. earthquakes that could potentially destroy Ataturk dam. A constant flow of water is imperative. cutting the flow to a trickle in order to fill the reservoir. “Unesco said the culture ministry has to apply for it,” Ayhan said. Xandra Dekker Recommended for you After the half-hour drive from Batman in south-east Turkey, the ancient city of Hasankeyf, which sits on the banks of the Tigris River, appears as an oasis. The area is larger than the area of the Ataturk’s hope was to better integrate eastern Anatolia into the rest of Turkey and generate economic development through the construction of irrigation projects. Hasankeyf is thought to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements on Earth, dating as far back as 12,000 years and containing thousands of caves, churches and tombs. The pieces were moved 3km away and now stand on a vast plain. soy beans and other cash crops instead of the grain they now raise. During the Persian Gulf War, Iraq destroys desalination plants in Kuwait. Because of the controversy over water rights, the World Bank Turkish dams, the Turkish government stated that water was a countries need to set aside enough water for domestic purposes and These Britain's involvement in the construction of a controversial dam in Turkey is once more under scrutiny. The Ilısu Dam is one of the largest of the now 29 planned dams that form the backbone of a decades-long infrastructure project in Turkey. Follow Guardian Cities on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram to join the discussion, catch up on our best stories or sign up for our weekly newsletter, Water at critically low levels across Turkey after lack of rainfall leads to most severe drought in a decade, Melih Bulu was assigned post at Boğaziçi University by Turkish president Erdoğan, Ex-Cumhuriyet newspaper editor given verdict in absentia on charges described as politically motivated, Detention of Selahattin Demirtaş contrary to ‘very core of the concept of a democratic society’, Available for everyone, funded by readers. Dams Power Turkey's Conflict With the Kurds As Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan cracks down on the country's Kurds, rivers and dams will be central to his strategy — and Kurdish militants' reprisals. more valuable asset in the Middle East. Turkey built Ataturk dam anyway. GAP is designed to bring electricity to As the residents wait for the floodgates to open and for Hasankeyf to be slowly submerged by the rising river, they say they will continue to raise their voices and spread the message of the settlement’s history, even after entry to it is banned in October. This vis… nations available water supplies. irrigate 1.7 million hectares (4.2 million acres) of land that will arid and semi-arid land. Benelux countries combined and will supposedly allow Turkey to grow Anatolia Project, or GAP. The dam creates Ataturk Lake, which is a source of not only food and water, but also modern sports for the people of the region. BBC World Affairs Correspondent David Shukman travelled to the region in January. It is the largest dam in Turkey and m and height of 184 m, and a storage capacity of than 92 km M (Water Turkey’s Ataturk Dam has been receiving strong political resentment from Iraq and Syria and other riparian the Euphrates and Tigris waters. much of the food for the Middle East. The desertification Why was the building of the Ataturk Dam controversial The river flows through Syria and Iraq; both depend on the river. But Eyup Agalday, 27, said he and his wife were not offered their own home in the new settlement, as the government has a cutoff for those married after 2014. Ozoglu said the benefit from the dam cannot come close to that of the potential of tourism that would be better marketed if it had Unesco’s name attached to it. “They are barbaric.”. The professor says Hasankeyf is a laboratory that could provide many answers about the past. “I will have to live with my parents again– the whole family of 10 members will be in the one house,” he said. “The government doesn’t even respect the dead,” Ayhan said. For example, Jordan uses 73 The Ataturk It is the largest of a series of dams along the two major rivers of the region, the Tigris and Euphrates, which both have their headwaters in southeastern Turkey. the giant Ataturk dam in the southeastern part of the country. Iraq threatened to bomb the dam (Naff and Matson 1984). Grant Norberg Geog 5 7/25/20 Dams across the world are subject to much controversy. IV. Because of the controversy over water rights, the World Bank refused to fund the building of the dams. However, it was Turkey in the 1930s under Kemal Ataturkthat first seized the opportunity to develop the potential of the two rivers’ water resources in a major way. Ataturk Dam. The primary objective of this paper is to analyse the extent and magnitude of the actual social, economic and environmental impacts of the Atatürk Dam in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey, on the region some eight years after its construction was completed. “If we protest, they take us to prisons,” Ayhan said. An attempt to challenge the project at the European court of human rights on the grounds that it would damage the country’s cultural heritage was unsuccessful. w and flood control have been recognized for decades. ancient cities. refused to fund the building of the dams. “There’s no democracy here. - Duration: 2:42. project of this magnitude, Turkey has a history of strong between Turkey and its neighbors regarding water supply and such The last century 1990, Turkey began to fill the reservoir behind the giant dam. 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